Nutrigenomics can be defined as research focussed on identification of interactions between dietary bioactive compounds and nutrients with genome at a molecular level. This branch of science deals with the concept of personalised nutrition based on an individual’s genotype and phenotype. Considering the exponential increase in cancer incidences, researchers worldwide are trying to find an association between diet and cancer prevention. Usual nutrition recommendations are given on basis that all individuals have same nutritional requirements with slight modifications according to their respective age groups and gender. However, nutrigenomics provides a new insight into effect of vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds in modulation of gene expressions. Also, another aspect of nutrigenomics sheds insight into the concept that individual genetic variation can have different response to specific foods.
Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) have been known to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases and thus dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional requirement, nutritional status, and genotype (i.e., “personalized nutrition”) can be used to prevent, mitigate or cure chronic disease including cancer. Studies have shown that nutrition from food can affect the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of an individual’s body and its vulnerability to different diseases. The ongoing research in cancer based nutrigenomics highlights,
Although nutrigenomics is a science still in its infant stage, there is an incredible potential for the application of nutrition in cancer prevention and management. Until then, based on clinical evidences scientists have suggested following nutritional guidelines as preventive cancer measures: